The Dean Dossier
Executive Summary:
Former Governor Howard Dean averages out as a centrist, being conservative on matters of budgets, crime, and drugs; and more liberal on the topics of environmentalism, reproductive rights, and gays.  He has cultivated a friendly relationship with the leaders of various businesses, large and small, particularly the utility companies of Vermont.
biography ethics lotteries presidential campaign security
budgets gays native americans railroads utilities
champion lands guns outdoor sports reproductive women
children health insurance opinions, various republicans "dean-isms"
clearcutting constituents crime downtowns   environment        jobs                    presidential
schools                   miscellaneous
We've heard about Howard Dean in the news, some of us have heard about him a lot.  "Flaming liberal", "impractical", "the next McGovern" are a few of the epithets that have been lobbed at him from both the left and the right.  His supporters, on the other hand, seem to feel he is the best thing since sliced Ben & Jerry's ice cream.  So what is the truth about Doctor Governor Howard Dean?
There is an age-old truism in politics and in life, dating back, in fact, for at least two thousand years:
A guy can tell you what he stands for all he wants, but the proof of the pudding is what he did.
With this in mind, we took to the Web and mined the archives of all the Vermont newspapers we could find, for articles detailing Howard Dean's past activities as governor of Vermont.  Our 'Dossier' is based on the following sources:
By far the most extensive records, dating back to 1997, were to be had from the conservative-leaning Caledonian Record. Other contributors to our info-base were: the Times-Argus, from the capitol, Montpelier; the Bennington Banner, and the Brattleboro Reformer. Rounding out the field of contributors is the August 11, 2003 issue of Time,, Blog For America, and Howard Dean's own autobiography... and off we go.
Howard Dean's full name is actually Howard Brush Dean III (174). Dean's father, Howard Dean Jr., worked for the China National Aviation Corp (Pan Am-(174) in World War II, then moved to Wall Street like his father and grandfather, making a very good living indeed as a top executive of Dean Witter Reynolds.  Our Howard Dean was born in 1948 and he and his three brothers Charlie, Jim and Bill (174) grew up in East Hampton, going to school at the Browning School in New York City and later, St. George's boarding school in Middletown, Rhode Island "so that the boys could have more time outdoors".  For non-Rhode Islanders' reference, St.George's today costs $30,000 a year and has its own 69-ft sloop for the students.
As a youth, Dean opposed the Viet Nam war, and the Army deferred him because of an unfused vertebra in his back, ("spondylosis", (174); probably actually spondylolisthesis) which prevents him from running long distances.  He graduated from Yale in 1971 and after ski-bumming for a year, decided to take the path of least resistance and make his living on Wall Street, like his father.
--See also the interesting page on this topic.
In 1974 Dean's younger brother Charles, who had worked for the McGovern campaign, went to Laos for unexplained, rumored reasons (antiwar activism? undercover for the CIA? no one will say).  In any event, there he was slain, perhaps by the Pathet Lao.  To this day, Howard Dean wears his brother Charlie's belt in memoriam, distinctive for its large metal eyelets. See Howard Dean's own narrative for more on his brother Charles.
Life on Wall Street being unsatisfying for Dean, he began sneaking premed classes at Columbia on the sly, sure that his father "would think leaving finance for medical school was crazy." But he was caught out, spotted on campus by his mom, who was getting her art degree at Columbia. However, the elder Howard Dean didn't utter a peep and Howard went on to Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, where he met his wife-to-be, Judith Steinberg.
Dean had applied for residency "at highly competitive hospitals in New York and Washington," but not getting into these, settled for his fourth choice, the University of Vermont in Burlington, the state's largest metropolis at a population of 40,000.  In this small pond, he began his political career in a citizen's group to get a bike path at a lake, and worked his way up to Lieutenant Governor, achieving the governor's chair when Governor Snelling died of a heart attack in 1991.(165)
On to Dean's Vermont Governor record, at least since 1997:
Based on his record, Dean appears to be a budget hawk's budget hawk.
At least as early as 1997, he pushed for, and got, full funding for a "rainy day fund" which the state could use to carry it through hard economic times.(1)
He was selective about taxes, raising some and cutting others. For example, he opposed a 10-cent increase in the state gasoline tax, which the Vermont Department of Public Service wanted to use to fund universal car insurance.(2) He also eliminated the sales tax on clothing (4), and gave targeted tax breaks to businesses of various sizes in order to enable them to generate more jobs.(5) He did advocate a 67-cent-per-pack cigarette tax to offset rising medical costs, much to the dismay of convenience store owners across the state.(8)
Having inherited a budgetary black hole from his predecessor, Richard Snelling, he "successfully... fulfilled (Snelling's) plan... to tax Vermont out of its fiscal hole" noted the Caledonian Record sardonically.(6),(10) The Record, however, grudgingly praised him for defending an income tax sunset from fellow Democrats, and for filling the state's "rainy day coffers," and declared: "Dean's contribution to the fiscal health of Vermont should not be understated."(6) Dean also got props from the Vermont Chamber of Commerce for his handling of the state's budget.(7)
When times began to get hard for the state in 2001-2002, Dean got mean. He ordered $17 million in budget cuts in 2001,(12) urged a rewriting of the state's income tax system to raise $7 million more (13), slashed highway grant funds (14), and refused to let a school district get a bond for a term of 30 years instead of the usual 20. He refused them for fear of causing a drop in the state's credit rating, which he had fought to raise to the highest in all of New England.(15)
The Champion Lands
A noisy episode in recent Vermont history involved 130,000 acres of wild lands which the Champion Paper Company sold to a consortium of the State of Vermont, The Conservation Fund, and the Vermont Land Trust in 1999. These lands had for many years been used by Vermonters for outdoor sports such as fishing, hunting, camping, and snowmobiling, as well as some logging.(18) An outdoor columnist noted with enthusiasm that the camp leases' terms were much more beneficial to campers than previously under the paper company.(22) However, sportsmen's alarm bells began to sound when the Northern Forest Alliance called the lands "a wilderness tract",(21) and the stuff hit the fan when the state apparently gave an easment to the Nature Conservancy, which then wanted to designate 12,000 acres as an "ecological area" where human uses would be highly limited.(24),(25),(27). Despite repeated assurances by state agencies that people would still be able to use the lands for their traditional uses,(23) the uproar continued, and finally, Dean signed an executive order that explicitly stated that "perpetual access for hunting, fishing, and trapping" in the disputed area would continue.(28)
return to NHPR interview)
Dean seemed to take a paternal interest in the state's children.  He visited and praised a class of high school students for restoring a riverbank,(29) appointed high school students to serve on the boards of several state agencies whose policies affected kids,(30) praised a class of seventh-graders for proposing a bottle bill to the state legislature,(32) and "established programs for children as an essential service".(31) However the Brattleboro Reformer reproached him in 2002 for cutting funding in unnamed "key programs".(33)
Clearcutting and "P.O.S.T."
Another quintessentially Vermontese conflict arose over the issue of clearcutting. Dean approved a bill to impose a $100 permit application and waiting period for any log-off of lands of 40 acres or more. The bill was intended to reign in "timber liquidators", who would clear-cut vast tracts and then sell off the denuded land, but many claimed the 40-acre limit was too small and would impact ordinary Vermonters.(34) Irate landowners banded together and founded "Property Owners Standing Together", or "P.O.S.T.",(36) whose main weapon was to post their lands and prevent snowmobilers from crossing it. They figured, since snowmobiling is a major source of winter tourist revenue in Vermont,(38) that the economic pressure would force Montpelier to relent on the new rule. Dean seemed to consider P.O.S.T. more regrettable than wrath-inspiring, stating that "it's their land, and their right". He expressed his willingness to raise the acreage limit to 70 acres (but an amendment for 75 acres had been defeated in the Legislature.(34)) But he also asserted that "This complaint (about clearcutting) started in the Northeast Kingdom, with concerns over 500- and 1,000-acre clearcuts...And the response around here has not been all negative..."(37)
While not declaring Dean to be Satan Incarnate, P.O.S.T. were not above ribbing him, presenting him with a surprise "clearcutting award" for some logging he had done on his own property. Mockery aside, this meeting between P.O.S.T. and the governor was "cordial". They also sneakily purchased the old car of a legislator who had voted for the clearcutting law, and had a $5-a-whack car-bashing fundraiser at the meeting, axes and sledgehammers provided.(39) The car-bashing caused a stir of its own, and they had to hastily clarify that they meant no malice towards the legislator herself, only towards her legislation.(40)
A year later, one of the leaders of P.O.S.T., a professional logger, was hit with an outsized fine for some cutting he did for a customer, but he immediately assumed it was the Agency of Natural Resources, not Dean, who had it in for him for being a "squeaky wheel".(41) He then proceeded to wrestle with the state through various legal gyrations (especially on the state's part, according to a letter-writer(44)), but the whole issue seems to have gradually died down, as ;we found no more articles on the topic online after April 2001.
Dean was quick with a glad hand and a warm word, attending the funeral of a beloved firefighter,(45) visiting town meetings,(47) and commiserating with the citizens and city leaders of a town which lost a major downtown building, and several lives, to fire.(48),(49) When helping the Kiwanis with their on-air fundraising auction, he offered up his necktie for sacrifice if a drill he was auctioning was bid up to the highest in his block.(50) When the Association of Game Wardens presented him with a T-shirt at a function, he tugged it on over his shirtsleeves and schmoozed with the wardens, munching on moose steak.(10) A fellow from out-of-state (Connecticut) proposed that Vermont should have a Governor's Mansion (it doesn't), to which the Secretary of State replied that they doubted it would "be in the style of our present governor."(46)
Dean clearly stated that this was all part of the job description for Governor of Vermont. "It's really a hands-on job. You have really got to be around the state, meeting people all the time. They expect that; they deserve that."(10)
As he began his Presidential campaign in 2002, the Caledonian Record accused him of giving very liberal speeches to the Democrats in Iowa, while he gives very Republican speeches in Vermont.(51)
Crime and Drugs
Dean turns out to be pretty conservative here. He "has continually called for confiscating the cars of drunk drivers,"(53) and called for the death penalty in 1997, saying that "some acts are so incredibly depraved that the death penalty is an appropriate redress." The Caledonian Record noted, however, that the liberal Vermont Legislature has little likelihood of passing such a law (there is no death penalty in Vermont).(54) He supported legislation to put more state troopers on the roads(55) and earned the emnity of a group of prisoners' mothers, who stated that "We're sick and tired of having Gov. Howard Dean move our boys around the country like his personal pawns."(56) However, in 2001 a vicious killer was furloughed (but denied parole), and despite the protests of the victim's family, Dean did not intervene in the corrections department's handling of the case.(58),(59),(60)
In 2002 the Vermont State Police Union accused Dean of underfunding the state's Department of Public Safety, but he pointed to budget increases to the department 5 years running. Some said the DPS had trouble managing its finances. (65)
He showed great dislike for methadone treatment, approving it in 2001 for dispense only at medical facilities,(57),(62),(66) and had no interest in giving it to prison inmates whatsoever.(61) In 2002 the state lowered the rates at which it would reimburse medical clinics for the treatment, and one methadone organizer suspected Dean was behind this act.(62) On another occasion the Vermont Legislature voted to exempt medical marijuana from prosecution, with strong objections from Dean, who "hinted that he would veto the proposal if it reached him."(64)
Dean "...proposed several incentives for the private sector to invest in downtown buildings and businesses" in 1998 (87) and appointed a 'Downtown Development Board' in 1999 whose mission was revitalization of the downtowns of Vermont.(89) He was fond of passing out community development grants in person.(88),(90) However, the town of Derby was displeased with him when he took $900,000 that had been appropriated to replace an old and dangerous bridge, and used it for his Campaign 2000 Road Paving program instead, particularly when the following year a milk tanker had a scary but fortunately non-tragic accident on the bridge.(91)
The town of St. Johnsbury wanted to knock down an old tenement which the state Historic Preservation Division said was a historic building, in order to expand parking for their downtown businesses. Dean cast a jaundiced eye on the tenement and stated, "It doesn't look very historic to me."(68) In short order the state gave the OK for demolition,(69) and St. Johnsbury proceeded with the razing and the building of new parking.(70),(71),(72),(73),(74)
Likewise, of Caledonia County's proposal to expand its courthouse, "I don't want to skimp on the size of the building. ... If we build it, build it right ­to last for another 100 years."(75) He dug a scoop of dirt at its groundbreaking,(77) and it was completed two years later.(84)
He was very pleased with the progress of a new state building in Newport, designed to contain both state offices and retail office space, as well as opening up the waterfront and adding a bike path. It will be the "best state building in the whole state. It's even better than I thought it was going to be," he said.(86)
Dean helped arrange a cooperative agreement between himself, the governor of New Hampshire, New England Power, and numerous regulatory and conservation groups, to preserve stretches of the Connecticut River on which NEP has dams. In return for the company's help with conservation, the other groups helped the company get its federal license renewed through FERC.(92) See Utilities below for more on his relationship with the utilities.
In 1998 he requested $10 million in the budget for town water and sewer improvements.(87)
He stated that conservation and business need not be mortal enemies, that a "middle ground" could be reached.(19),(93) "He has been less inclined to hold business to a hard line with regard to state regulations, preferring to find compromises that would be less onerous for entrepreneurs."(31)
Dean was proud of the Champion land deal,(10) (see above) and tended more towards acquiring lands than strict regulatory enforcement.(31)
When the shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant was proposed, and alternative sources of electricity to replace it were discussed, Dean chimed in that the state could use a coal plant.(94)
Dean expressed outrage that the Vermont state teachers retirement board didn't vote to divest its tobacco stocks.(95)
Dean liked to keep many documents that crossed his desk secret, citing the "executive privilege" affirmed to some extent by the VT Supreme Court in 1990.(164) Three newspapers had to sue in order to gain access to his full daily schedule, not just a listing of his public appearances.(99)
He favored some government regulation of business, such as versus monopolies, and said that property rights "involved a careful balance ... for example, that the government should be able to restrict him if he wished to put up a McDonald's restaurant in a residential area."(3)
"A five-member panel appointed by Gov. Howard Dean has conferred in secret with the Central Vermont Public Service Corporation and Green Mountain Power about ways to restructure the power supply mix and reduce costs..."(96)
Dean stated, apparently on at least a couple of occasions, that campaign donors "do get access ó thereís no question about that. ...They get me to return their phone calls..."(98),(100)
The chairman of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant gave Dean's presidential campaign the max allowable donation, while Dean's appointees were considering whether to allow the sale of the power plant.(100)
In October 1998, Dean had not yet made up his mind about gay marriages, but did say "he would favor the adoption by same-sex couples if it was in the best interest of the child."(3) By 2003, said Time, Dean held "the exact same position" as Kerry(165) (and, incidentally, California gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger (166) )-- in favor of gay civil unions, but not gay marriage.
In spring of 2000, the issue of gay civil unions versus gay marriages came up in several town meetings' nonbinding surveys. No towns approved of gay marriage, but 11, including the capital, did approve of civil unions.
The civil unions bill sparked a statewide furor, and one group even launched an advertising campaign that suggested that Dean was "pursuing the homosexual agenda" such as "cutting the defense budget to pay for AIDS patients' care and sex change operations; taxpayer funding of artificial insemination for gays..." Dean, outraged, snapped "How preposterous. How perfectly asinine. How fatuous."
In April of 2000, the Vermont House and Senate passed the bill by wide margins. "It reached his (Dean's) desk shortly before lunch time. And by the time of a 2 p.m. news conference, he already had signed it far out of view of television cameras, photographers and reporters...
"Dean signed the bill privately because he did not want the ceremony to be a triumphal party by supporters of the law. Instead, he said, it was time for the state to begin healing.
'In politics, bill signings are triumphal,' he said. 'They represent overcoming of one side over another. These celebrations, as the subject of the matter of the bill, will be private.' "(104)
The fallout extended to the fall, with that year's governor election being one of the most strident in Vermont history. However, Dean squeaked out a reelection victory with just over 50% of the vote.(10),(105) (return to NHPR interview)
We did not find any Vermont articles specifically showing any stance by Dean either pro- or anti-gun. He did, however, take several actions which expressed support in general for Vermont's hunting and outdoor sports-- see Outdoor below.
Health Insurance
"Dean was not able to achieve any grand, systemic reform of the health care system, but gradually, he was able to expand state programs so that virtually all children have health care coverage. There are many stresses and strains in the health care system..."(31)
A columnist for the libertarian Ethan Allen Institute disapprovingly summarized Dean's health-care record thusly:
"The 'young doctor-governor' began his effort by pushing Act 160 through to passage in his first legislative session (1992). This act created a Vermont Health Care Authority and charged it with bringing forth two sweeping health care plans. One was to be a single payer plan that Lt. Governor Dean had championed as in 1991. The other was something called "regulated multi-payer" that Gov. Dean championed in 1992. In addition, Act 160 imposed community rating on all health insurance premiums. ... As intended, community rating drove most of the private insurers out of the state.
"Other provisions of Act 160 authorized a statewide insurance pool (abandoned in six months), binding state control over hospital budgets, and a "safety net" for customers abandoned by the fleeing insurers (which cost Vermont Blue Cross millions of dollars until effectively repealed by regulatory fiat.)
"In late 1993, the Authority presented the two required plans. They were immediately rejected both by Gov. Dean and by the single-payer forces in the Legislature. An effort to legislate a "universal access" plan collapsed so dramatically in the 1994 House that it became a national story in the New York Times. Shortly thereafter the Legislature abolished the Authority.
"In 1995, Dean decided to expand Medicaid instead of attempting a "universal" solution. Eligibility levels were increased until children in families with up to $51,000 income could qualify for benefits. To finance the expansion, the Legislature levied taxes on hospitals, nursing homes and tobacco, and even more drastically underpaid providers for the health care services demanded by program participants...
"(After 11 years:) The state share of Medicaid spending has risen from $86.7 million to $263.5 million. ... According to Census Bureau figures, (the uninsured rate) has gone from 9.5 percent (1992) to 9.7 percent (averaged over 1999-2001). In 1994 - before Medicaid expansion - that data series ranked Vermont second among the states. The 2001 ranking for health insurance coverage placed Vermont 10th in the nation.
"... the Census Bureau data sample is quite small for Vermont, and thus the Vermont percentage jumps erratically between eight and 14 percent."(108)
In 2001, Dean pointed out that "It's the small-business person who can't afford insurance for himself or his employees" ... He said small business workers represent the bulk of the 6 percent of Vermonters who don't have insurance. He also said it was the fault of "heavy marketing of high-priced drugs," not insurance companies. "The state is self-insured, and we've seen insurance rates increase 50 percent over the past two years," Dean said.(9)
Vermont had implemented "a prescription drug assistance program in the state... (which) extended the same prescription rebates and discounts granted to people through Medicaid insurance to people who wouldn't otherwise qualify." However this program was struck down by a federal court ruling in 2001.(107) Dean was pretty sore at the pharmaceutical companies for this: "These (jerks) just want to make money," he says. Only 'jerks' isn't the word he blurts out to his legal counsel on the other end of the cell phone."(10) This is, perhaps, a recent development in his life: "I've never wanted to beat up on the pharmacy companies because I know how they work and I know how important their products are. But they are so arrogant and high-handed. They totally lack compassion"(10)
He was proud to implement the programs Success by Six, an early-childhood development curriculum, and Dr. Dynasaur, a health care coverage program for children under 18.(10)
Jobs and Business
In his 1998 budget, Dean asked for "a $50,000 increase in the budget of the Small Business Development Center and an extra $200,000 to enhance the state's Job Training Program..."(87).
Dean supported the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact,(87) which helped the region's dairy farmers stay in business via price supports, and was distressed when it was attacked in Congress the next year by Midwestern dairy lobbyists. "We have a good system that doesn't cost the taxpayers any money. It's because of some vindictive people in the Midwest who are saying, 'We're miserable, so we'll make sure everybody else is miserable,' instead of saying, 'Gee, those people in New England have figured out something that's pretty good for the farmers -- why don't we copy it?' It's mainly greed, and they're not interested even to help their own farmers."(113) He and Vermont's entire Congressional delegation went to Washington to fight for the compact.(117)
Dean would help businesses whenever he could, from aiding the expansion of a resort's ski lifts,(110) to wangling tax breaks for them,(5) to attempting to entice tourists into the state to buy more Christmas trees.(114) At the very least, he would make a point to be on hand with words of praise whenever a company expanded and added new jobs,(112) or decided to stay in Vermont,(111) or generally behaved as an exemplary all-round corporate citizen.(115) He attended a ski resort's ticket-selling festival and purchased a book of day passes himself in order to help it out.(116) The size of the business did not matter, he would support large ones and small ones.(5),(110),(111),(112),(115),(116)
Dean absolutely refused to bring Powerball, the multi-state lottery, into Vermont. "'I will not sign any bill with Powerball in it. For that to be in and get to my desk would needlessly prolong the session."(118)
Native Americans
Dean refused to let the Abenaki Indians be recognized as a tribe by the state.(109)
Outdoor Sports In General
Dean supported the snowmobilers' organization, Vermont Association of Snow Travelers (VAST), and complimented them on their "cooperation with other organizations, including hunting and fishing enthusiasts and environmentalists in land stewardship and conservation. Noting that snowmobiling is vital to the stateīs economy..."(119) He presented an award to the Game Warden of the Year,(120) and attended game warden functions.(10) In 2002, he declared "hunting heritage weekend".(121)
Political Opinions
Dean said he was against racism. "He spoke about an occasion going to college at Yale and having a African-American roommate. At one time, Dean found he was the only white person in a room of 12 African-Americans. 'That was when I realized what it was like to be an African-American in the United States,' said Dean."(122)
Dean had these things to say in a 2001 interview:
"You know, I'm in the middle like Jim,' he says, referring to his 'good friend' and fellow politician Sen. James Jeffords, who caused an upheaval in state and national politics recently by leaving the Republican Party to become an independent. ... "Many of the principles I have about fiscal management are more akin to Republican than Democrat, no question about that."
However, Dean says he could never switch parties.
"I would never be comfortable in the Republican Party. The far right is just too awful. If you look at the extreme of both parties, I think the extreme right has no compassion whatsoever and the extreme left, while I strongly disagree with their methods and their financial views, has a core of compassion," Dean says. "What they're trying to do is help people who need a hand. But the extreme right simply wants to dictate personal choices to everybody, and they couldn't really care less if people needed a hand or not... I think it's really important that the state (of Vermont) not move to the right...
"One of the things I look for in a leader is a willingness to stand up to the extremes and say no. I worry deeply about the future of the state. One reason I was elected five times is because I can stand up to the liberal wing of the party," he says. "I worry about the ability of the next governor to stand up to extremism, regardless of what party that is.
"Dick Snelling (Vermont's previous governor) was willing to stand up to his party. If there was ever to be a Republican governor, it's not good enough just to be a moderate. They are going to have to be willing to stand up to the right wing of their party. ... If it's impolitic, that's just too bad. You have to be willing to tell off your people. ... No, I'm not going along with that... This is a new Republican Party," he says. "The old-line Vermont Republicans were pro-environment, pro-choice, anti-labor. The New Republicans have made a drastic shift to the right Ė they are anti-environment, anti-choice and not pro-business..."
Dean compares the crop of social conservatives to civil rights opponents from 40 years ago.
"The extremists of the Republican Party are really descendents of the anti-civil rights movement Ö There are always people who don't want change, who fear change or are threatened by it. That is who the extremists in the Republican Party cater to."
Dean was uneasy when he saw the Republican House in action.
"I'm concerned about the Republicans' spending in the budget," he says, referring to funding methods proposed by the GOP House that Dean says were unsustainable. (Unclear if this is USA House or Vermont House)
"I knew there were issues we wouldn't agree on Ė abortion rights and civil unions Ė but I didn't think I'd have trouble on their spending," he says. "I am worried about the Republicans. It's one thing to fight with the Democrats who spend too much money. It's another thing to cook the books. I worry about what would happen if the Republicans took over financially...
"I think there's a future for bipartisanship in the House (of Vermont)," he says. "As the speaker (Walter Freed, R-Dorset) becomes more statesmanlike and realizes what his obligations are, he will have to throw those people (social conservatives) over the side from time to time." (10)
"He (Dean) has said it is the Legislatureís job to say yes by trying to satisfy the demands of its diverse constituencies, but it is the governorís job to say no. He has not been afraid to say no, and other Democrats have learned from him."(31)
Presidential Aspirations
Dean was looking at the White House as far back as 1997, when he was rumored to have floated the idea past Al Gore.(16) He decided against it then, and the Caledonian Record presciently mused that 2004 might be a better time for him to try.(123) He looked at it again in 1999, but again decided to back off. "'I looked at it pretty hard. But one of the big issues was, first of all my family was too young. And there was no way to run for president and be governor at the same time. ... It's really a hands-on job."(10)
However by December of 2001, he was seriously exploring the subject again-- seriously enough to annoy the Caledonian Record about the fact that the state of Vermont was paying for his security while he did so.(124)
Presidential Campaign
Utilities were some of the early donors to Dean's campaign, back in early 2002.
"Nearly a fifth of the roughly $111,000 collected in its first months by Deanís presidential political action committee, the Fund for a Healthy America, came from people with ties to Vermontís electric utilities, according to a recent Federal Elections Commission filing. It should be no surprise. Dean and utility executives have had a long and friendly relationship. One donor who gave Deanís PAC the maximum amount allowed ó $5,000 ó ... is Robert Young of Proctor, who also is a top official at two utility companies that have had a lot of important business before state government during Deanís nearly 11 years in office."(98)
In late 2002 a poll indicated that 56% of Vermonters would not support Dean's bid for the White House.(125)
In Spring of 2003 some Dean veterans joined his campaign. Robert Rogan, Dean's former deputy chief of staff, joined as the deputy manager. Joe Trippi, who runs a political consulting firm in Maryland and worked on all of Dean's governor reelection campaigns, became the campaign manager. "Former Virginia Lt. Gov. Donald Beyer said he will be national treasurer for the Dean campaign..." At this time, Rogan predicted that "the Internet would play a pivotal role in Deanís campaign. Of the $2.6 million Dean said he raised in the first three months of this year, almost $750,000 came from Internet donations..."(126)
Indeed, about this time (April 2003), Dean's Net power was starting to be noticed. An outside pro-Dean group tacked $0.01 onto all their Internet donations to distinguish them, which immediately caught the eye of Trippi and the other Dean staffers. The Dean campaign had just joined forces with Meetup, itself a company barely a year old. Dean was definitely the pig in Meetup's python, swelling its ranks hugely and by April, beating out witches as Meetup's most popular topic.(127)
On May 21, Joe Trippi emailed the Dean base and asked them to sign up all their friends, email their pen pals, etc to grow the Dean membership. By June 18, the membership had doubled to 100,000. (168)
The Times-Argus mused in June 2003 that Dean seemed to have undergone a personality change since running for President:
"Dean the presidential candidate yells into the microphone, firing up a crowd as if he were a rock star, and attracts legions of enthusiastic supporters via the Internet. Dean the governor for nearly 12 years was decidedly more low key, sometimes even folksy, a generally popular politician even though he inspired very little of the devotion among his fellow Democrats that heís found on the presidential campaign trail."(128)
In June, Vermont's poet laureate, a self-described feminist, joined "Feminists for Kucinich", to which Dean replied with a Haiku:
"The campaign goes on
We will one vote at a time
Take our country back. "(129)
In mid-June 2003,, an internet-based "progressives' grapevine," decided to hold a "MoveOn Primary", to ask their members which Democratic candidate to support.(169) Forthwith they gathered statements from all the candidates, published them on their website (170) and held the "election" on June 24th-25th. Based, apparently, on his statement on the website,(171) Dean garnered 43% of the MoveOn members' 300,000 votes (172). Attracting the attention of 129,000 voters in 48 hours seems to have given the Dean campaign the kick-start it needed to hit the big time, as they received $2.8 million in donations in just the period from June 22nd to June 29th.(173)
Dean had a "pro-railroad stance",(130) suggesting a light rail line to the Legislature in 1998,(87) and keeping a money-losing commuter train running in spite of tight budget times.(131),(12)
Reproduction, Contraception, Abortion
In the 1998 governors' debate, Dean echoed another candidate's statement "that the decision to have an abortion is between a woman, her doctor, and her God."(3) He opposed a parental-notification bill that was proposed in 2001,(10) and for a number of years he issued an annual proclamation honoring the Supreme Court decision that made it legal for single people to have access to birth control products.(132)
Living With Republicans
Although he'd never want to be a Republican,(10) Dean seems to have had no problem coexisting with the moderate ones. He routinely appointed moderate Republicans to fill vacant seats formerly held by Republican legislators and judges.(16),(135),(138) One of these replacement legislators may have been no coincidence, as she was not only a moderate Republican, but also the daughter of the outgoing legislator and of the former Governor, Dick Snelling. This one was chosen over that county's Republican caucus' nominees, who "Dean characterized... as nice, but 'conservative.' "(138) In another case, a dedicatedly Republican state senator, Vincent Illuzzi, was pleased with Dean's appointment of a replacement judge.(133) Dean had flattering words for a moderate Republican candidate who showed interest in running for governor after Dean left the office.(136)
Dean did not deal with his opponents with a lot of rancor, saying he he just tries to shake the hands of his opponent's supporters when they let him. "They pay my salary just like everybody else."(3)
"The Democratic governor gives the best Republican speech in Caledonia County," sardonically commented the Caledonian Record of Dean's speech to the regional Chamber of Commerce. They did give him credit for reminding the businessmen that higher wages are only possible "if Vermont can attract the manufacturing sector and its higher-paying jobs."(134)
Interestingly in light of current Texas events, in 2002 Vermont Senate Republicans blocked voting on a construction-spending bill in an attempt to force a vote on a redistricting bill, delaying the Senate's adjournment. Dean had deemed the construction bill too unimportant to delay adjournment of the Senate. This redistricting proposal had, according to the article, been revived again and again by the Republicans after supposedly being settled.(139)
See also Political Opinions above for an extended Dean quote about Republicans.
In 1997 the town of Stowe proposed to raise its town taxes to pay for more stuff for their schools, and Dean supported them. However the Secretary of State shot the plan down.(140)
In 1998, to the astonished gasps of the Legislature, Dean proposed public school choice.(87) It was added to the new Act 60 school-funding bill shortly thereafter.(142) However, Dean clarified that he was in favor of choice for public schools, not parochial schools.(3),(9)
Dean said he was bothered that Act 60's tax structure would cause some businesses to have to lay off workers, but said he would still sign it and then urge the Legislature to fix it. Many disagreed, saying if he saw things wrong with it he should veto it.(144) Act 60 apparently based its tax structure fairly simplistically, on how much land a town had. A few months later the town of Victory decided to opt out of Act 60 funding, because it has no schools of its own and 2/3 of its property that it would be taxed on, is a bog. They sent Dean a letter in mid-January asking for an exemption, but he had not answered. The Education Commissioner was not sure the town's move was legal.(143)
In 1999, when every school in the state flunked the new statewide testing standards, Dean put a bright face on it and said "he was pleased at the opportunity to examine ways to start improving the quality of schools."(111)
In 2001 the Caledonian Record noted that "Of all the 50 states, Vermont allocates the smallest amount of money to its colleges -- 3 percent. That compares to No. 1 ranked Iowa at 25 percent." At this time, due to budget cuts, the state's funding to colleges was "facing a 1.5 percent recision in funding in 2002 and that figure could go higher in 2003."(145)
Dean greeted Bush's schools bill (apparently the 'No Child Left Behind Act') in Spring of 2002 with great hatred and loathing.
"Rebelling against new school-testing demands, Vermontís governor says he wants his state to consider rejecting $26 million in federal education money to escape the requirements attached to it. The testing component is a key part of President Bushís education plan, which Gov. Howard Dean called 'a terribly flawed bill.' He also said provisions on school prayer and access to student information overstep the limits of federal oversight. Dean ...said Vermont has developed its own comprehensive testing system, which it would have to rebuild to comply with federal requirements. Under Bushís plan, schools receiving federal money must test all students in grades 3-8 in reading and math. 'Itís going to be incredibly expensive and require us to do our work all over again.' "(147) However, he relented, and accepted the funds, at least for the first year, grumbling that "many local taxpayers will see their taxes rise due to new federal requirements."(148)
By October of 2002, in his efforts to keep the budget under control during the weak economy, Dean was calling for more cuts in the state's aid to local schools.(149)
A Vermonter recaps the Act 60 saga:
"Let this Vermonter again address the Vermont school tax formerly known as Act 60 ... Act 68, which replaces Act 60, takes out the despised 'shark pool' that forced property wealthy towns like mine to send a ton of money to Montpelier for towns that didn't have a lot of valuable property.
One problem with the 'shark pool' was that you could be 'property rich' and 'cash poor'. Older people especially who owned property other than two acres and a home, got clobbered. It put town against town and neighbor against neighbor. Dean supported us in setting up a 501.C.3 not-for profit foundation to support our school and avoid the shark pool. My property taxes on my home and two acres with the fund increased 25%. Had we not had the fund, they would have gone up almost 100%. Who do you blame, but Howard Dean because he signed the bill. With the repeal of the 'shark pool' and the raising of the per student grant, all Vermont towns are in better shape and the acrimony is fading.
With the passage of time and careful reflection, I can't blame Dean for the bill. The Vermont Supreme Court mandated the funding change. The legislature was a lot more 'left wing' (two of the prime 'share the wealth' Democrats left the Senate) than it is now.
Howard Dean had to sign that bill and I now realize it. Calling him 'Marxist' is just plain stupid." (150)
In October of 2001, Dean praised the FAA for closing the airspace over nuclear power plants nationwide, and said the closure needed to be permanent.(151)
When the USA PATRIOT Act was passed, Dean was uncomfortable with it, but didn't oppose it outright.
"It is discomforting. It is a significant erosion of the Bill of Rights, " Dean said. But: "This is a war. In war, security issues and the preservation of innocent life is something that rises to the forefront... Itís not something Iíd want to see permanently in place... I think Pat Leahy made a great contribution to the country when he insisted all this stuff be sunsetted." (152)
In 1997, Dean Dean helped arrange a cooperative agreement between himself, the governor of New Hampshire, New England Power, and numerous regulatory and conservation groups, to preserve stretches of the Connecticut River on which NEP has dams. In return for the company's help with conservation, the other groups helped the company get its federal license renewed through FERC. (92)
Of Citizens Utilities' recent malfeasances, which it apparently had already been punished for, a person involved "said Dean told him the hearings are over, Citizens has been found guilty and it is time to wipe the slate clean and start over."(153)
During the "restructuring" of Vermont's electric service, Dean appeared to favor "retail choice",(154) and in early 1998 he "challenged the Legislature to pass a comprehensive electric restructuring bill."(87)
In the fall of 1998, "A five-member panel appointed by Gov. Howard Dean has conferred in secret with the Central Vermont Public Service Corporation and Green Mountain Power about ways to restructure the power supply mix and reduce costs... "(96)
In February of 2002, the Times-Argus listed Dean's history with the utility companies:
"Nearly a fifth of the roughly $111,000 collected in its first months by Deanís presidential political action committee, the Fund for a Healthy America, came from people with ties to Vermontís electric utilities, according to a recent Federal Elections Commission filing. It should be no surprise. Dean and utility executives have had a long and friendly relationship.
"One donor who gave Deanís PAC the maximum amount allowed ó $5,000 ó ... is Robert Young of Proctor, who also is a top official at two utility companies that have had a lot of important business before state government during Deanís nearly 11 years in office. Young is chief executive at Central Vermont Public Service Corp. and chairman of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp.
"A top Dean aide emphatically denied that the governor has ever let campaign contributions influence state policy...But the governor himself has said the donations buy access. 'People who think theyíre going to buy a contract or buy some influence are mistaken,Ē Dean famously said during the debate over a campaign finance reform bill in 1996. 'But they do get access ó thereís no question about that. ...They get me to return their phone calls...'
"Deanís close relationship with utility representatives dates back to the day he became governor in 1991. A lobbyist for Green Mountain Power and a GMP employee were among the first people Dean called in to help his transition.
"A list of the Governorís Council of Economic Advisers includes Green Mountain Power Corp.ís chairman, two company board members and a vice president, all of whom made donations to the Fund For A Healthy America. It also includes two longtime utility lobbyists.
"Over the years, the governor has sided with the utilities on many of the most pressing issues, including the push for deregulation of the electric industry, and later backing away from that as a goal.
Among other major decisions:
ó After years of pushing for the companies to absorb the excess costs of their expensive contract with Hydro-Quebec, Deanís Department of Public Service agreed to let ratepayers be billed for more than 90 percent of what those excess costs are expected to be in the coming years. The extra costs will be in the hundreds of millions of dollars.
ó The department also agreed to allow the utilities to sell Vermont Yankee to a Pennsylvania company for a price that was expected to be $23.8 million by the time the deal closed. Shortly before the Public Service Board was to make a final decision on that sale, another company stepped in and offered more than seven times as much. That sale to Entergy Nuclear Corp. is currently before the board.
ó After it became clear in the late 1990s that selling Vermont Yankee was a top goal of the utilities, the administration failed to heed warnings for more than two years that the money the nuclear plant was paying for emergency planning was much less than was needed. An administration official said there was concern about interfering with the sale."(98)
In March of 2002, the Conservation Law Foundation and the Citizens Awareness Network filed freedom of information requests with Gov. Howard Dean's office, demanding details on administration officials' contacts with Vermont utilities... two weeks after a story by The Associated Press detailed contributions from utility executives and board members to the political action committee of Dean's fledgling presidential campaign .(155)
In July of 2002:
"Money does buy access, and we're kidding ourselves and Vermonters if we deny it."
-Gov. Howard Dean
BRATTLEBORO -- Robert Young, chairman of Vermont Yankee, gave Gov. Howard Dean's presidential campaign fund $5,000, the maximum allowable, while the governor's appointees were deciding whether to allow a sale that would bring the nuclear plant's owners $180 million. (100)
Dean appointed several women to various posts, most of them Republicans: a replacement judge,(133) the new head of statewide Human Services,(156) and the replacement state senator Snelling.(137),(138)
" The messages of nice people far outnumber the messages of not-so-nice people," the governor told a gathering of Lake Region students, teachers, and administrators. "You can turn off a lot of cynicism you get fed everyday by doing good things. Most of the time you only hear about the 10 percent of people doing bad things. This (project to rehabilitate a riverbank) is one of the 90 percent that's good."(29)
On the survival chances of 600 baby trees he had recently planted: "I'm prepared to go back and see ground."(29)
"But you can't eat pride," in response to an opponent's assertion that Vermonters are too proud to have the government in their lives.(3)
On newly-elected governor Jesse "The Body" Ventura: "I think we ought to give him a shot. The people of Minnesota did." (161)
Of an ad claiming that he was 'pursuing a homosexual agenda': " How preposterous. How perfectly asinine. How fatuous."(102)
As the navy blue Grand Marquis zips north on Interstate 89 toward Burlington beneath the warm June sun, the edge in Gov. Howard Dean's voice grows sharper. His brow furrows and his face reddens as he grouses into the mobile phone about the heartless, money-grubbing pharmaceutical companies.
"These (jerks) just want to make money," he says. Only 'jerks' isn't the word he blurts out to his legal counsel on the other end of the cell phone. He suddenly blanches, remembering that a reporter is sitting next to him in the back seat of the car.
"You're not going to put that in the paper?" he says, more as a plea than a demand... (10)
Of high-dollar campaign donations: "People who think theyíre going to buy a contract or buy some influence are mistaken... But they do get access ó thereís no question about that. ...They get me to return their phone calls..." (98)
"Money does buy access, and we're kidding ourselves and Vermonters if we deny it."(100)
Of a budget proposed by the Democratic Vermont Senate in 2002: "The Senate budget is in la-la land. It is not going to fly."(163)
Of the misdeeds of Fletcher Allen Health Care management: "These people were crooks that did this and I hope that they get criminally prosecuted."(167)
Miscellaneous Other Items
"Of the many achievements Dean is most proud, a few are programs or initiatives that were started by predecessors like Snelling and former Democratic Gov. Madeline Kunin, that Dean has taken over and stamped with his own mark.
During a recent interview in his ceremonial office at the State House, Dean recited the list. It is an amalgam of liberal and conservative initiatives that include providing health care for children and offering tax credits to businesses." (10)
(June 2001) "He does not, however, wish to return to medicine. He says advances in medicine in the last decade would be too much to digest." (10)
Dean announced in September of 2001 that he would not run for reelection as governor.(31),(157)
Dean was displeased with his son's malfeasance.
"Democratic presidential candidate Howard Dean said Friday that his 17-year-old son and four other teenagers were cited in a burglary for attempting to steal liquor from a Vermont country club. ' Children do stupid things and this is one of them,' Dean said in a telephone interview ... 'Iím cutting short my next two days on the campaign trail to deal with a family problem that I consider to be a serious problem,' he said." (160)
(2) 5 December 1997, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(3) 23 October 1998, Dwyer Supporters Snub Gov. Dean Before Debate, Caledonian Record,
(4) 30 July 1999, Clothing Tax Exemption Welcome In Kingdom, Caledonian Record,
(5) 3 September 1999, Two NEK Companies Get State Tax Breaks, Caledonian Record,
(6) 2 November 2000, A Governor On Behalf Of The Governed, Caledonian Record,
(7) 14 January 2001, Chamber wants debt reduction, Times-Argus,
(8) 18 January 2001, Cigarette tax impact?, Times-Argus,
(9) 15 February 2001, Governor addresses Chamber, learns workouts are 'fun', Times-Argus,
(10) 24 June 2001, Dean after 10, Times-Argus,
(11) 10 December 2001, A Vermont Campaign Fund Cookie Jar?, Caledonian Record,
(12) 17 January 2002, Dean hopes more cuts aren't necessary, Times-Argus,
(13) 1 March 2002, Vt. House OKs income tax changes to help schools, Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8678%257E434475,00.html?search=filter
(14) 12 March 2002, Planned state budget would slash road funds, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8862%257E456929,00.html?search=filter
(16) 11 December 1997, He Will Keep Stafford's Seat Republican, Caledonian Record,
(17) 10 March 1999, The Champion Land Amendment, Caledonian Record,
(18) 6 April 1999, Governor Dean Signs $4.5M NEK Land Deal, Caledonian Record,
(19) 21 April 1999, Gov. Dean Addresses Concerns About Champion Land Deal, Caledonian Record,
(20) 27 October 1999, Six Appointed To Champion Lands Council, Caledonian Record,
(21) 22 June 2001, Ecological Areas Will Still Be Open To Public, Caledonian Record,
(22) 12 October 2001, Thoughts On The Out-Of_Doors by Gary Moore, Caledonian Record,
(23) 4 December 2001, Thoughts On The Out-Of_Doors by Gary Moore, Caledonian Record,
(24) 30 March 2002, Nature Conservancy a wolf in sheep's clothing by Sherb Lang, Caledonian Record,
(25) 29 April 2002, Letters to the Editor- Support amendment to Champion law, Caledonian Record,
(26) 6 July 2002, Refuge Bike Ban Irks Local Folks, Caledonian Record,
(27) 31 October 2002, Letters to the Editor- NEK lawmakers are friends of the sporting community by Steve McLeod, Caledonian Record,
(28) 2 November 2002, Dean, hunters reach deal, Times-Argus,
(29) 5 June 1997, Governor Recognizes Students' River Work, Caledonian Record,
(30) 23 June 2000, Teen Appointed To State Panel, Caledonian Record,
(31) 9 September 2001, Howard Dean's legacy, Times-Argus,
(32) 23 March 2002, Students champion recycling in capital, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8862%257E481291,00.html?search=filter
(33) 10 May 2002, How are the children?, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8854%257E602456,00.html?search=filter
(34) 1 May 1997, NEK Legislators Lose Logging Bout,Caledonian Record,
(35) 6 May 1997, Loggers Poised To Post, Caledonian Record,
(36) 12 May 1997, Property Owners Being Urged To Post Land, Caledonian Record,
(37) 16 September 1997, (untitled, by Dan Bustard), Caledonian Record,
(38) 15 October 1997, (untitled, by Dan Bustard), Caledonian Record,
(39) 7 January 1998, Gov. Dean Accepts Award From POST, Caledonian Record,
(40) 8 January 1998, (Untitled by Dana Gray), Caledonian Record,
(41) 25 March 1999, POST Leader Protests Fine, Caledonian Record,
(42) 28 April 1999, Logger Says Fines Unconstitutional, Caledonian Record,
(43) 19 September 2000, Logger Wants Access To State Files, Caledonian Record,
(44) 13 April 2001, Letters To The Editor: Suppose, Caledonian Record,
(45) 10 September 1998, McDonough Given Full Firefighters' Funeral, Caledonian Record,
(46) 16 September 1998, The Redstone Building, Caledonian Record,
(47) 24 February 1999, Gov. Dean To Visit Area Town Meeting, Caledonian Record,
(48) 1 February 2000, Governor Tours Fire Scene, Caledonian Record,
(49) 10 February 2000, Hundreds Gather For Memorial Service, Caledonian Record,
(50) 22 March 2000, Gov. Dean Loses Tie, Caledonian Record,
(51) 15 October 2002, Gov. Dean In Iowa, Caledonian Record,
(52) 30 July 1997, Community Groups Lower Child Abuse Cases, Caledonian Record,
(53) 25 September 1997, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(54) 28 October 1997, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(55) 4 March 1998, (untitled, by Dan Bustard), Caledonian Record,
(56) 29 September 1998, Inmates, Prisons And Politics, Caledonian Record,
(57) 14 February 2001, Heroin Use Still Plagues Area, Caledonian Record,
(58) 13 April 2001, Releasing Killer Angers Family Of Dead Girl, Caledonian Record,
(59) 18 June 2001, Wade Willis Out Of Prison, Caledonian Record,
(60) 19 June 2001, Parole Denied For Willis, Caledonian Record,
(61) 1 December 2001, No methadone in prison, Dean says, Times-Argus,
(62) 5 January 2002, RRMC, Retreat drop plans for methadone clinics, Times-Argus,
(63) 12 February 2002, Woodstock closing eyed, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8862%257E396304,00.html?search=filter
(64) 16 March 2002, House poised to approve medical marijuana, Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8678%257E467600,00.html?search=filter
(65) 22 August 2002, Dean: Funding criticism off mark, Times-Argus,
(66) 21 November 2002, All A Set-Up In St. Johnsbury, Caledonian Record,
(67) 6 May 1997, Governor Signs Tax District Into Law, Caledonian Record,
(68) 18 February 1998, Governor Agrees Building Should Be Razed, Caledonian Record,
(69) 24 March 1998, State Gives OK To Demolish Estabrook House, Caledonian Record,
(70) 10 Aug 1999, Voters Say Yes To New Parking Lot, Caledonian Record,
(71) 13 June 2000, Selectmen Agree To Condemn Estabrook House, Caledonian Record,
(72) 6 July 2000, Town Sets Estabrook Damages At $47,000, Caledonian Record,
(73) 21 March 2001, Picture of the Day, Caledonian Record,
(74) 25 April 2002, Picture of the Day, Caledonian Record,
(75) 22 January 1998, Sen. Illuzzi Hoping To Downsize Appropriation, Caledonian Record,
(76) 27 January 1998, Courthouse Project Hot Topic At Breakfast, Caledonian Record,
(77) 10 October 1998, Ground Broken For Courthouse Addition, Caledonian Record,
(78) 24 November 1998, Vance Says County Budget To Drop Because Of Project, Caledonian Record,
(79) 6 January 1999, Courthouse Addition Budget $1.3 Million Short, Caledonian Record,
(80) 7 May 1999, Panel OKs $3.9M For Courthouse, Caledonian Record,
(81) 26 October 1999, Courthouse Project Behind Schedule, Caledonian Record,
(82) 30 December 1999, Old Records Found At Courthouse Site, Caledonian Record,
(83) 1 June 2000, More Human Remains Found At Courthouse Site, Caledonian Record,
(84) 26 October 2000, Courthouse Rededicated, Caledonian Record,
(85) 12 September 1997, (untitled, by Dan Bustard), Caledonian Record,
(86) 6 October 1998, Governor Dean Tours Hebard State Building, Caledonian Record,
(87) 7 January 1998, (Untitled, by Sylvia Dodge), Caledonian Record,
(88) 20 February 1998, Dean Awards Block Grant To St. Johnsbury For ETSi, Caledonian Record,
(89) 12 January 1999, Courthouse May Help Downtown Project, Caledonian Record,
(90) 23 July 1999, Gov. Dean Delivers State Funds to Town, Caledonian Record,
(91) 5 July 2001, Truck Crash On Controversial Bridge Raises Local Ire, Caledonian Record,
(92) 3 September 1997, Agreement Reached On Future Of River, Caledonian Record,
(93) 17 January 2002, Dean offers thoughts on business, Times-Argus,
(94) 6 April 2002, The power to choose Aging reactor fuels debate on energy sources, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8862%257E511436,00.html?search=filter
(95) 16 June 1997, Teachers And Tobacco Stocks, Caledonian Record,
(96) 30 November 1998, A Panel And Power, Caledonian Record,
(97) 26 January 2001, Ide Wants To Make Lying A Crime, Caledonian Record,
(98) 27 February 2002, Dean raises money from energy sources, Times-Argus,
(99) 2 May 2002, Newspapers win lawsuit against Gov. Dean, Times-Argus,
(100) 13 July 2002, NEWS ANALYSIS 'Clean elections' system slow to catch on in state, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8862%257E728464,00.html?search=filter
(101) 14 March 2000, Same-Sex Questionnaire Draws Large Response, Caledonian Record,
(102) 24 March 2000, Governor Denounces Ad Campaign, Caledonian Record,
(103) 19 April 2000, Historic Bill Almost Passed, Caledonian Record,
(104) 26 April 2000, Civil Unions Bill Becomes Law, Caledonian Record,
(105) 19 October 2002, Governor's race is the calm after the storm, Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8673%257E935608,00.html?search=filter
(106) 29 February 2000, Dwyer Sounds Health-Care Alarm, Caledonian Record,
(107) 18 June 2001, Opposed To Dean And Sanders' Opposition, Caledonian Record,
(108) 19 November 2002, Gov. Dean's 11-year health care record, Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8663%257E1000239,00.html?search=filter
(109) 5 March 1999, Joint Resolution Seeks Recognition Of Abenakis, Caledonian Record,
(110) 20 October 1998, Resort Announces New $4 Million Expansion, Caledonian Record,
(111) 27 April 1999, Governor Has Sweet Words On Learning And Sugaring, Caledonian Record,
(112) 8 June 1999, New Line, New Jobs At Lyndonville Plant, Caledonian Record,
(113) 22 October 1999, Dairy Compact Under Seige, Caledonian Record,
(114) 3 December 1999, 'Business Watch', Caledonian Record,
(115) 26 May 2000, 'Business Watch', Caledonian Record,
(116) 6 November 2000, Rally 'Round The Mount Huge Success, Caledonian Record,
(117) 15 April 2001, Vermont Week in Review for April 15, Times-Argus,
(118) 5 May 1999, Gov. Dean And Powerball, Caledonian Record,
(119) 4 October 1999, Property Use Dominates VAST Talk, Caledonian Record,
(120) 22 October 1999, Thoughts on the Out-of-Doors by Gary Moore, Caledonian Record,
(121) 17 May 2002, Turkey season Youth Turkey Hunt declared a success, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8865%257E617618,00.html?search=filter
(122) 5 June 2000, Dean: Erase Racism, Caledonian Record,
(123) 19 January 1998, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(124) 12 December 2001, Governor Dean's Out-Of-State Trips, Caledonian Record,
(125) 2 November 2002, Governor Dean and the White House, Caledonian Record,
(126) 8 April 2003, CVPS official joins Dean campaign team, Times-Argus,
(127) 19 April 2003, Net gain: Dean gets online boost, Times-Argus,
(128) 21 June 2003, Candidate Dean may seem unlike governor, Times-Argus,
(129) 11 July 2003, No Paley support? Dean's poetic retort, Times-Argus,
(130) 6 October 1997, (untitled by Gail P. Montany), Caledonian Record,
(131) 12 February 2003, Commuter trainís demise earns it final TV appearance, Times-Argus,
(132) 22 March 2003, Douglas criticized for not issuing proclamation on birth control case, Times-Argus, March 22, 2003
(133) 6 January 1998, (Untitled, by Todd Wellington), Caledonian Record,
(134) 29 January 1998, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(135) 13 July 2000, Magoon Named Side Judge, Caledonian Record,
(136) 28 August 2001, Con Hogan Weighs In On GOP Plans, Caledonian Record,
(137) 17 January 2002, Dean leaning toward GOP to fill Senate seat, Times-Argus,
(138) 18 January 2002, Dean chooses Diane Snelling for Senate seat, Times-Argus,
(139) 10 June 2002, Legislature hits another bump and fails to adjourn , Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8678%257E663766,00.html?search=filter
(140) 29 July 1997, The Stowe Idea And Property Tax "Reform", Caledonian Record,
(141) 4 February 1998, Five Of Six CNSU Schools Without It; Volunteers Needed, Caledonian Record,
(142) 13 February 1998, School Choice Added To Act 60, Caledonian Record,
(143) 3 September 1998, Gold Town Says No To Act 60, Caledonian Record,
(144) 13 March 1998, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(145) 26 October 2001, VSC Board Meeting: Bleak Financial Picture Painted, Caledonian Record,
(146) 31 January 2002, What Gives With The School Budget?, Caledonian Record,
(147) 19 April 2002, Dean wants state to reject education aid, Times-Argus,
(148) 31 May 2002, Dean to accept federal testing funds for first year , Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8676%257E644670,00.html?search=filter
(149) 3 October 2002, Dean administration calls for smaller aid to education, Bennington Banner,,1413,104%257E8676%257E899550,00.html?search=filter
(150) 15 August 2003, 05:34 PM, post by 'Joe in Vermont',
(151) 5 November 2001, Airspace And Vermont Yankee, Caledonian Record,
(152) 8 December 2001, Dean 'open-minded' about anti-terror measures, Times-Argus,
(153) 16 September 1997, (Untitled 2, by Dan Bustard), Caledonian Record,
(154) 26 December 1997, (Untitled, by Dan Bustard), Caledonian Record,
(155) 13 March 2002, Conservationists request Dean's utility records, Brattleboro Reformer,,1413,102%257E8862%257E459271,00.html?search=filter
(156) 21 September 1999, NEK Woman Ready For Top State Post, Caledonian Record,
(157) 10 September 2001, Next Elections Could See Major Changes, Caledonian Record,
(158) 24 October 2002, Douglas For Governor Of Vermont, Caledonian Record,
(159) 24 October 2002, Letters To The Editor- Concerned about Douglas' ethical standards, Caledonian Record,
(160) 21 June 2003, Dean's son charged with accessory to country club burglary, Times-Argus,
(161) 17 November 1998, A Governor-elect, Caledonian Record,
(162) 10 May 2002, Dean needs to learn a little humility, Times-Argus,
(163) 13 May 2002, Governor Dean And The Senate Budget, Caledonian Record,
(164) 9 December 1997, Editorial, Caledonian Record,
(165) 11 August 2003, The Cool Passion of Doctor Dean, Time Magazine,,10987,1101030811-472817,00.html
(166) 27 August 2003, Schwarzenegger Lays Out Positions On The Issues,,
(167) 19 November 2002, Dean says Fletch Allen management 'crooks', Times-Argus,
(168) 18 June 2003, We Doubled Dean-- thank You, Blog For America,
(169) June 2003, Presidential Process Survey, PAC,
(170) June 2003, The MoveOn Online Primary, PAC,
(171) 18 June 2003, Dean's Letter to MoveOn Members, Blog For America,
(172) 27 June 2003, Report on the 2003 PAC Primary, PAC,
(173) 29 June 2003, $6 Million! And 45 Hours to Go, Blog For America,
(174)Winning Back America, Howard Dean, Simon & Schuster, 2003.

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